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Training topics for nets
Radio-related training topics
Which radio should you get? [link
Let's cut to the chase, and then we'll start talking about options and possibililties.
You should purchase a
antenna, and an alkaline sled (battery case), then program it with the
frequencies you'll use most.
A handheld transceiver (HT)
When selecting a portable radio that you can quickly take with you when you need it, here
are some things to consider:
Will your choice of radio still be a good one if all the above criteria aren't met? Probably,
but there are some minor inconveniences you might have to live with.
It must be able to receive and transmit on 2 meters, which is where most local
communication takes place on repeaters and nets. Ideally, it should also be a
dual-band radio, supporting 70 cm, the second-most used frequency band.
It should be one for which you can purchase an alkaline sled for it, since many
models do not have that option. That is, an empty battery case that you can fill
with your own non-rechargeable batteries.
It should be one that many of your friends have. It's very convenient to have a
radio, for which you can ask for help from a friend, or compare notes, or bring
to club meetings and discuss.
It should be supported by
the free, online radio programming software, to get it programmed quickly, should you
need to add a new repeater or net frequency. (You'll need the programming cable that
goes to your particular radio model too.)
It should be able to receive FM broadcast radio, to allow you to hear news and
information from commercial radio stations during an incident.
It should be not only a dual-band radio, but also a dual-watch radio, which
can allow you to hear incoming communications on two different frequencies at the
It should be light-weight and small enough to slip onto your pocket or re-sealable
It should be inexpensive, to allow you to feel free enough to experiment with it and
wear it out, without the worry of replacement or repair cost. Some folks will purchase
an HT that's loaded with cool features, as their first radio, only to be too fearful
to take it hiking with them or do field experiments with it or involve it in events.
A mobile radio
For those looking to get something a little heftier, whether you install it in your vehicle,
set it on your desk, or (yikes!) pack it around on your back, a mobile unit might
be what you're looking for. Some of the above suggested criteria still apply, such as
dual-band, dual-watch, same model used by friends, CHIRP-supported, and low-cost. Obviously,
there are other things to consider when you get a mobile unit, such as:
There are other types of radios, such as portable and base units, but the
focus here is on training, and recommendations for reasonable deployment.
It needs a separate 13.8-volt power supply, such as a
It needs a good, portable antenna, such as a
mag-mount, or a
It needs 50-ohm coaxial cable that's long enough to reach from your radio to the
antenna, but of a model that minimizes the signal loss, such as RG-8X.
It should deliver (transmit) 25 watts on FM to make it worth your investment
What frequencies should be programmed in my radio [link
Most of today's radios are able to hold many frequencies in their memories, but should you
fill them, just because they're there? I recommend you only program into your radio what
you need, so that you won't get overwhelmed or confused if you find you need to communicate
right away. Ok, so which frequencies should you program? That'll depend on where you'll be
at the moment you need them.
Where you're likely to be
If you spend most of your awake time at home or at work, it'll be wise to take that proximity
into account, especially if you plan to communicate between home and work. But you might also
need to go downtown shopping, to the doctor's office, or visit a friend, and if those take
you far away from home, those locations might require some additional frequencies to think
Know what channel to change to, if necessary
If you have already programmed your radio with a number of useful frequencies, you're
probably prepared to talk on whichever one you need at the moment. But if you have them
programmed by name, are you familiar with what the names mean, as in which frequencies, or
at least which areas they cover? And when it comes time to switching frequencies, are you
able to do that on the spot?
Know how to manually change frequencies at a moment's notice
Be familiar enough with your radio that you can manually enter a new frequency at any
time. You might be required to manually enter a frequency you've not already programmed in,
because you need to get off a repeater or move off a simplex frequency that's already in use.
This'll require you to know how to enter the frequency (Frequency Mode), the offset
(OFFSET), the shift direction (SFT-D, plus or minus, or off for simplex), and
Programming your radio on-the-fly while you're traveling is very useful, but often quite
cumbersome. So, taking your laptop and an appropriate programming cable along for the ride
can prove indispensable. Do you know how to use the cable and the software to do the
programming? You can download charts of programming frequencies, listed by radio
model and general location from
Noji's programming page.
Get a signal report before starting [link
It doesn't help a whole lot if we attempt to get on the air, and nobody hears us. Even if I
have the very best equipment that money can buy, including a great antenna, and even though
I'm certain everybody this side of the Wasatch Front can hear me, is it still possible that
they can't? If I'm talking on simplex, my antenna could be oriented incorrectly, I have a
loose connection, I have a corroded connection, I'm not speaking close enough to the microphone,
or my battery is on its last breath. If I'm trying to talk through a repeater, maybe my tone
or offset isn't set, maybe I'm too far from the repeater to hold it open for proper communication,
maybe I've bumped my button and I'm a little off-frequency, or maybe I just need to get out of
When you need to get on the air, especially in a hurry, it seems there are a number of obstacles
that could hinder your otherwise perfect transmission. For that reason, one of the first things
you should do before a net or a drill is to request a signal report. Maybe say, "WS7RJT. Could
I please get a radio check?" and you'll find one or more listening hams who'll be happy to help
you out by telling you how you sound.
You're typically looking for three things as feedback to your transmission: the quality
of your sound, your loudness, and whether your audio is accompanied by any static or
other noise. A ham radio operator who can report these three sound properties is the most
helpful. By the same token, you can offer the most help by reporting these same three qualities
to people who are asking for a report. On the other hand, those who say, "You sound fine" are just a
bit too brief, and don't give you a lot to go on, although it's still kind of them to try and give you
some sort of feedback. The brief exception is when a ham operator simply reports, "Perfect!"
which means crystal clear audio, loud audio, and no perceptible
background noise, in a nutshell.
Once you do this, you're relatively confident that the rest of your transmissions could easily
be heard by those who need to hear them. Even after that, you could still deviate from that once great
report by moving around, changing your antenna direction, or your battery failing. But, at least you've
taken that initial step to ensure a smoothly running net or drill.
Communicating on reverse [link
In our ever-charitable desire to be helpful to other hams, we sometimes encounter those who
have a difficult time getting into or even reaching the repeater. When we hear somebody
struggling like this, it might be worth our while to help out by communicating with the
person directly rather than through the repeater. But if he's tuned to the repeater, and you
don't know his cell number, how can you alert him, so that you can help him?
One way is to switch to what we call reverse mode, which most radios support.
The reverse function merely switches the repeater input and output frequencies on your radio.
Normally, when communicating through a repeater, you use your radio to talk into the repeater
input frequency and listen on the repeater output frequency. On reverse, you talk into the
repeater output frequency, so that your friend can hear you, and listen on the repeater input
frequency, so that you can hear him.
But communicating on reverse like this only works if the other person can reach you better
than he can reach the repeater, because the repeater is out of his range on one side (to the
north of him, for example), but you're within his range on the other side (to the south of him,
for example). Or this might work when your friend is being obstructed from the repeater because
of a mountain or tall building, but you have a clear shot of both him and the repeater.
So, how do you use this reverse function? Many mobile units and some HTs have a button labeled
REV. Just press that button once, and your radio switches its repeater input and
output frequencies, then press it again to get out of reverse, and back to normal repeater
communication. If you're on a Baofeng or Wouxun, simply press the
* (star) button for reverse. If you have a Yaesu
FT-60R or VX-7R, simply press
C. Then press the same key to exit reverse mode.
There's no need for your friend to go into reverse mode.
Once you're in communication with the other ham by reverse, kindly let him know that his signal
is not making it into the repeater. Offer helpful, non-critical suggestions on what he could do
to improve his transmission, like move to a different location, point his antenna straight up,
speak closer or louder into his microphone, increase his radio power output, and so forth.
It's possible that his battery is running low or that his antenna has come loose. I always
believe my signal sounds wonderful, but one time people were telling me I was sounding terrible,
even when I was staring right at the repeater antenna. Turns out I had forgotten to put my
antenna back on after cleaning it off. So obviously, installing an antenna might help some of us!
The last thing to keep in mind when communicating in reverse is that you might want to let
others know you're in reverse mode, since even though you're not technically using the repeater,
you're tying up the repeater, because you're preventing others from using the repeater output.
You might get a lot of you're not in the repeater reports from others. Another thing is
that switching to reverse is no guarantee that you can reach him better; in fact, it might be
worse, but it's something you can try, in your quest to be a helpful ham.
Help others improve their signal [link
There are times when you're running a net, or you're trying to communicate with somebody by radio,
and he's difficult to hear, for whatever reason. On one hand, you don't want to sound too
critical of the person; after all, he's a new ham, and at least he's trying to get his signal
out there. But, assuming he's open to ideas and help (most new hams are), what kinds of helpful
suggestions can you offer? Depends on what the issues are and other factors. Here's a list of
things you can pick-and-choose from, that might be helpful.
Things that can make his audio difficult-to-hear:
His little radio might not be set on high power
He might have a rubber duck or some other poor antenna
His batteries might be running low
Things you can help his with now:
He's in a poor location — ask him to try moving a couple of feet to one side or
the other, or go outside or at least get out of the basement
He might be blocked by his house walls — ask him to move near a window
He might sound as though his signal is repeatedly strong and then scratchy —
ask him to not move around quite so much, if possible
His antenna orientation might be wrong — ask him to point it upward
He might sound garbled or distorted — ask him to back his mouth away from his
microphone an inch or two
He might sound too quiet — ask him to get as close to the microphone as possible,
then speak louder, clearer, and to not allow his voice volume to trail off at the end
of the sentence
He might be transmitting a loud alternator whine — if the whine is loud enough
to compete with his audio, ask him to turn off the engine, if possible
Does he know where his microphone hole is?
He might be puffing or blowing into his microphone — ask him to speak at the side
of the radio or microphone
He might sound as though he's got a loose connection — ask him to make sure his
antenna is securely connected
Things he can do later:
Get a better antenna
Get a better microphone
Install a tiger tail
Get a longer-lasting battery
If you believe another ham can hear him better than you can, you might want to ask for a relay
of his message. As they say in amateur radio, if you can't hear 'em, you can't work 'em,
meaning you need to be heard by others, so that they can communicate with you. By the way,
asking people to modify their microphone gain will actually have little effect on making them
sound louder or better for several reasons, especially if they're on an HT.
Baofeng radios are legal to use [link
There's been quite a lot of discussion and concern lately about certain
announcements made by the FCC
regarding some models of Chinese radios. Bottom line is that they are all legit, and can be
used legally by licensed amateurs, as long as you're using them on amateur frequencies.
The controversy arose because many Chinese radios have the ability to transmit on frequencies
outside amateur bands. Ok, that's not so bad, because we amateurs know the rules, so that notice
doesn't really bother us, because we follow the rules. Then along came some marketers who not
only advertised that these radios can transmit on those non-amateur frequencies, but encouraged
people to transmit on them without a license. That's what got them into trouble, and prompted
the FCC to make the announcements.
Because of the confusing wordage of the announcements, coupled with mis-interpretations by an
FCC attorney, many hams felt that they could no longer use their cheap, little handhelds legally.
But after a series of clarifications, prompted in part by objections from the ARRL, we have
been re-assured that our Baofengs and other Chinese radios are perfectly legal to use. And can
you sell them? Yes, you can, personally. That means to one ham from another.
So, I repeat: it's completely legal for you to use any Chinese, Japanese, Indian, or even Martian
radios, as long as you use them on ham frequencies.
More details are spelled out in the club newsletter, the
November 2018 issue of the UVARC Shack p. 22,
about the legality of using Chinese radios.
Personal training topics
Protocol training topics
Emergency training topics
Incident and CERT training
Radio-related training topics
Tactical call signs [link
One thing hams, as well as police, fire, military, government, and EMS personnel find useful
while communicating during an incident is the use of tactical call signs. Tactical call signs
represent group names, functions, or geographical locations, such as Medical 3, or Lookout
Point, or Grid 27. They're not the same as your FCC-issued call signs, and do not replace
them, but can be used as shortcuts during an exercise or emergency.
During an actual call-out it can get really tedious, if not confusing and frustrating, for all
parties involved, if you had to remember or read back a series of call signs, fumbling with
dyslexic numerals and letters as you try and get some important information to a far-away team.
It's easy to say, Team 2, this is Incident Command, and then have the other party repeat,
Incident Command, go ahead. That's a little easier easier than, KG7ZSC, I mean KC7ZSZ,
this is KB7BVP, only to have the other party say, Was that KC7ZSZ or KC7ZFZ? and then
you say, Kilo-charlie-seven-zulu-sierra-zulu, this is kilo-bravo-seven-bravo-victor-papa.
By the time you've figured out the call sign, the patient has died.
Another advantage to tactical call signs is that there is no need to keep track of which call
sign is where. Imagine Incident Command needing to get an update on a forest fire line advance.
KC7ZSZ, this is KB7BVP, with a reply of, This is N7YHU, KC7ZSZ had to leave.
Incident Command then asks, Ok, how about KG7UFU? with a reply of, No, KG7UFU had to
go too. Incident Command then says, Well, who's still there, who can give me an update?
What a time-wasting mess! Instead, try this: Hilltop Overlook, this is Incident Command,
with a reply of, Hilltop Overlook, go ahead, and then, Could you please give me a
fire-line status? In this case, Incident Command doesn't know, but more importantly doesn't
care, who's at Hilltop Overlook; he just wants an update from somebody there who's qualified to
deliver the update.
So, whose job is it to assign tactical call signs? It's the responsibility of Incident Command.
If IC doesn't care, or has delegated it, it's Net Control's responsibility, but Net Control must
then communicate them to IC, so that IC can keep an overall picture of the incident by location
or group name. If IC starts calling a group Hospital Deck, that might be a good clue that
you should also call it by that name, because that's familiar to him. And if you're the person
making up these tactical call signs, please make them as short as you meaningfully can. Instead
of giving one team a name of Harvey Gene Wallbanger Memorial Site 3 maybe simply Site
3 is good enough.
Now, all that being said, every ham is still required to transmit the FCC-issued call sign every
ten minutes and at the end of the communication, regardless of tactical call signs. One way to do
this during a drill, exercise, or incident, is by adding to the chatter and stating your actual
call sign every time you speak, which is not recommended, because you need to say less, not more.
The recommended approach is for Net Control to ask everybody to say their call signs every ten
minutes, all at the same time. Yes, you'll be doubling with thirty other people, but you've
satisfied the rule, to state your call sign; there is no requirement that anybody actually
hear your call sign.
Setting up a relay station [link
During an actual incident, what's often needed is a relay station to transfer messages between
two stations who couldn't reach each other by repeater (because it's down or unavailable) or
by simplex (too many obstructions). You can accomplish this several ways, but probably the two
most common ways is by local control and automatic control.
Local control means you're the relay station, and you need to travel to a location
between the two most critical communication stations that are having trouble hearing each other.
All three of your stations are using the same simplex frequency. You hear messages from one
station, then repeat the same message on the same frequency, so that both stations can hear you.
You then hear responses from the other station, and once again repeat the responses on the same
frequency, so that both stations can hear you.
Automatic control means you're responsible for setting up a repeater station, possibly a
cross-band repeater (XBR),
between the two most critical communication stations that are having trouble hearing each other.
You set your XBR to a 2-meter simplex and a 70-cm frequency, then ask one of the two distant
stations to set their frequency to the 2-meter frequency and the other distant station to the
Things to take into account with either method include location, power needs, and access. The
location of your relay station could be in your home, a school, or out in a field if the weather
is cooperating, as long as your surroundings don't obstruct your signal, making your relays
worthless. If you're away from home, you're going to need to plug into an outlet if the power
is on and reachable.
If AC power is not available, you might need a trusty battery, whose size will depend on your
radio and usage. If you're going to be out for long, setting up a solar panel might be a good
idea, if you have one. Finally, make sure you have immediate access to your station if at all
possible, especially if you're running an XBR, in case the battery dies or if the station
frequencies needs to readjusted, to avoid interference, for example.
Consider getting an ear piece [link
Admit it...your spouse doesn't like it when she has to listen to your friends call out to
you on your little HT in that irritating government-sounding audio. So, you take it into
the next room, where the signal is sketchy, or outside, where it's freezing cold. But to
communicate, you need to hear the other person talk to you. And if that other person has a
soft voice, is talking too far from his microphone, or has a staticky signal, you'll find
yourself turning up the volume and running your family out of your house.
What you need is something that will let you hear the other person, but that silences
your radio so that your family can't hear the other person. And there are several things
you can purchase, that will fit the bill, like headphones, earphones, a head-piece, and earbuds.
Problem is, unlike regular stereo equipment, you can't always go to Walmart and purchase what
you need. More often than not, you need to get an ear piece that has a plug, maybe even a
double-plug, that fits only your radio model.
Ok, so if others don't want to hear you, simply take it outside, right? Well, if you're able
to brave the shivering cold, the better signal will help the other person hear you, but
you might have a more difficult time hearing him, because of all the outdoor noise, from
cars on the street, from people, and from the breeze. An ear piece can focus all the audio you
want to hear from your radio into your head, often in spite of surrounding noise, while still
taking advantage of a good location.
But just as important, you really should get an ear piece for your radio, to help free up your
hands if you're serving during an incident. With an ear piece, you can usually hear the other
person on the radio pretty well, without forcing you to get the unit close enough to your ear
to hear it, possibly dropping it on the sidewalk. Just attach your radio by a belt clip to your
pants, your vest, or backpack, and then you can move the weight of your unit from your hand to
Some ear piece options to consider are those with a speaker and microphone combination
(speaker-mic), those with a handy PTT switch, maybe near your head, and those that support
VOX, or voice-activated transmit. One I like is a speaker-mic that also has an antenna connection,
placing my antenna above my shoulders, and the speaker-mic on my lapel. Any way you approach an
ear piece, you'll be able to free up your hands a little to concentrate on more important tasks.
Know how to manually operate your radio [link
One day, before the time of GPS technology, a man was driving all over an upscale section of
New York City, until he decided to ask for directions. He flagged down a pedestrian and rolled
down his window. "Excuse me, sir, could you please tell me how to get to Carnegie Hall?"
The pedestrian answered, "Practice, practice, practice."
You've got your ham radio license, you took a CERT course, and now you have a nice little radio
that you've grown to like. In fact, to take your readiness a step farther, you had your little
unit programmed with 200 channels of something or other. Furthermore, you use your radio by
participating in the New Ham Net, the 76ers Net, and even your stake net. Terrific! But if
worse comes to worse, have you done what it takes to be radio-ready for an actual incident?
During an emergency, do you know what frequencies to use? Because of the nets you participate
in, maybe so. But what if your programmed frequencies are busy, and you need to move to a
frequency that's not programmed in your radio. Will you know how to manually set that? At
a moment's notice, you might need to find a simplex frequency, or change to one that your
net control has dictated. Will you know how to do that manually, in seconds? How about if
he or she asks you to change to a repeater that you don't have set in your radio? Will you
know how to set the offset and tone?
Assuming you have all of that, depending on the emergency, will your hands be free enough to
help people, or will they be occupied by a handheld radio? Wouldn't it be better to put a
belt clip on the back of your radio, then attach it to your pants or pants pocket? And then,
wouldn't it be convenient to attach a speaker-microphone from your radio to your lapel? Then
your hands will be free, except when one hand is pressing the button on your lapel.
And after doing all of that, suddenly your battery dies. Wouldn't it be convenient to have a
freshly charged battery, or a sled of alkalines that you can slide onto your radio? And what
if people complain that they couldn't hear you very well? Do you have an extra antenna,
either a flexible
or a telescopic one, or at least a whip, that you can replace your rubber duck with?
Finally, use your net as your personal "emergency" by practicing these things during the net.
While your net is going, 1) switch to VFO Mode ("Frequency Mode") and punch in your net frequency
manually, 2) clip your radio to your pants pocket and attach your speaker-mic to the radio,
3) turn off your radio and replace the battery, and 4) replace your antenna with a better one.
Now, repeat that during the net again next week.
Getting your license was a great first step, but now it's time to do more than just stash your
radio away until there's an emergency. Because when an incident arises, and you aren't used to
using your radio effectively, you'll suddenly create your own emergency, rendering your license
useless. For real estate agents, the motto is "Location, location, location." For those of us
trying to prepare for the unthinkable and yet be helpful, it's "Practice, practice, practice."
Personal training topics
Protocol training topics
Emergency training topics
What kind of grab-N-go bag [link
When you need to leave your home in a hurry, you'll also need to take with you as much as you
can reasonably carry in a grab-N-go backpack, to free up your arms to do other tasks.
But the kind of backpack you get might not help you as much as you'd like if you select one
that doesn't have the features to accommodate your needs. The two biggest backpack concerns
are typically size and utility.
You'll want your backpack to be large enough to hold everything you need in a grab-N-go bag,
such as clothing, food, water, first-aid, toiletries, flashlight, batteries, and hundreds of
other things that are important to you. But if you get one that's too large, you might be
tempted to over-fill it, and the pack can become awkward and difficult to carry. One thing to
think about is whether your backpack is large enough to expand outward from your body, rather
than just upward (taller.)
The word utility refers to your pack's usefulness. If possible, your backpack should
contain multiple full-sized storage spaces and plenty of large and small pockets. It should also
have plenty of hooks, straps, or other means of attaching items to the exterior of your pack,
such as those on a
or tactical style backpack.
Other useful features you might want to consider in a grab-N-go backpack are hydration bladder
and hose, plastic (rather than metal) zippers, carrying handle, adjustable straps, strap hooks,
chest straps, rubber or plastic feet (to set it down without wearing it out), in-pack frame,
back padding, bottom hooks or straps (to attach underneath, like a tent or sleeping bag / pad),
water resistance, cover or hood, outer webbing or mesh pockets, side pockets (for your water
bottle or other), hidden pockets, locking waistband, double-stitching, and zippered expansion.
Finally, you'll need to decide where to store your grab-N-go backpack, which might actually help
you decide what kind to get. Place your pack in a coat closet near your front door or other exit,
where you believe you'll most likely leave from your home if you need to. This allows you the
convenience of checking and re-stocking your bag regularly right in your home. Some place it in
their garages for the same reason, because they plan to escape by vehicle. Still others keep their
backpacks inside their vehicles at all times. Just some food for thought.
What should go in your grab-N-go bag [link
Every person should have two things they have stashed near an exit-way in the event of a true
disaster during which they might need to evacuate: a 72-hour kit and a grab-n-go bag. Some
folks are resourceful enough to figure out how to combine these, but most of us are not. The
72-hour kit should contain everything we need to sustain life away from home for
72 hours, including water, water purifier, food, medicine, toiletries, TP, blankets, first-aid
kit, flashlight, headlamp, batteries, candles, lighter, raincoat, and dry change of clothing.
The grab-n-go bag should contain your CERT vest, CERT helmet, radio, antenna,
radio, batteries, tools, paper forms, pens, markers, non-latex gloves, work gloves, emergency
tent, emergency sleeping bag, and wipes. One thing that can make all of this easier to haul is
a collapsible wagon, assuming your disaster terrain is flat enough for one. And if you do have
a wagon, I would add a portable toilet.
With all of this, you're minimally prepared to serve your community in a CERT capacity. But
let's take a look at the radio you've packed in your grab-n-go bag. First, is your radio
already programmed with useful frequencies? These should include the following:
Finally, your radio batteries needs to be alkaline, not rechargeable. Store your pre-programmed
radio with a disconnected sled of alkaline batteries and a disconnected
or telescopic antenna.
your area simplex frequency (mine is 147.480 MHz)
your city simplex frequency (mine is 145.770 MHz)
several local ragchew repeater frequencies (ours are 146.760- MHz, 146.780- MHz)
your local ARES repeater frequencies (ours is 147.340+ MHz)
your ERC repeater frequency (mine is 147.020+ MHz)
146.520 MHz, the National 2-meter Simplex frequency
a local weather frequency (ours is 162.550 MHz)
KSL-FM 102.7 (the designated state emergency broadcast frequency)
many like to program local police frequencies, but no real need for that, especially since most radios can't be programmed to them.
How to answer a call for help [link
As a CERT member, you know that your community service is very needed when there's an incident
or emergency. You've been trained on really valuable skills, like Triage, Minor Medical,
Light Search and Rescue, and the Incident Command System, all of which can help save lives
when your help is needed. One thing we don't always get much training on, however, is how to
answer a call for help.
First, when you hear a request for assistance, you might not recognize it as a call for help.
That's because you're listening for a smooth, trained voice who's used to talking on ham radio.
The person on the other end might sound frantic, high-pitched, and hyperventilated. It'll
take everything you've got to remain calm, even if the other person isn't.
Second, the other person might not have ever heard of a call sign, let alone have a license.
It'll be up to you to ask the other person a lot of questions, to help keep him focused, to
keep him talking to you as long as you could, until help arrives, if it does. Ask what his or
her name is, call him by his name every chance you get. People feel more calm and at home
when you repeat their names often.
Third, find out about his environment, whether he's in a safe place. How about others nearby,
or is he alone? Are they alright? How old is he or she? If it's a child, where are the parents?
Are there power lines down near him? Does he smell gas? Is there broken glass on the floor near
him? Is there water on the floor or spraying in the air? Are the lights on?
Finding out as much information as you can will help in three ways: it'll provide the caretakers
(like police or fire or parents) enough info to assess, it'll help calm the other person, and
surprisingly, it'll help calm you as well. There's often a lot of talk about protecting privacy,
but I'll tell you right now that when a child's life is in danger, her privacy is probably not
the first priority.
Radio-related training topics
Personal training topics
Protocol training topics
Emergency training topics
Questions? Ask Noji (KNØJI)